Transplantation is a highly-complex medical procedure requiring the cooperation of experienced teams of numerous medical specialties, making transplantation a prototypical example of academic medicine. Despite these dramatic successes, unmet needs remain. The most pressing, unsolved problem in organ transplantation is the limited long-term graft survival due to the gradual loss of graft function. The MedUni Vienna is one of the most active transplant centers in Europe. Against the background of this clinical activity, transplantation research has reached the critical mass necessary for performing research at an internationally competitive level, addressing the major unmet needs of the field.